2. In lytic cycle, bacterial cells disrupt and release new phages with integrated genomes to outside. Generalized and specialized are two types of transduction methods. Transduction can be done by two different methods based on the type of genetic material that is going to be transferred. In magnetofection, the particles that carry foreign DNA are concentrated into the host cell with the help of a magnetic field. Transfection is based on the chemical, non-chemical or particle-based methods while transfection is based on the viral vector-mediated methods. This is an illustration of the difference between generalized transduction, which is the process of transferring any bacterial gene to a second bacterium through a bacteriophage and specialized transduction, which is the process of moving restricted bacterial genes to a recipient bacterium. Email. 2017 Transduction is a biological method of gene transfer. The three types of transfection are chemical mediated transfection, non-chemical mediated transfection, and particle-based transfection. Transduction occurs when foreign DNA or RNA is introduced into bacterial or eukaryotic cells via a virus or viral vector.One example are bacteriophages that attach to bacterial membranes and inject their genetic material into the cell. The key difference between transfection and transduction is that transfection is a non-viral based gene transfer technique which uses chemical and physical methods whereas transduction is a viral-based gene transfer system. For transfection, for example, nonviral vectors like lipoplexes are believed to be more successful and have lower risk factors than viral vectors. Transduction: Transduction is a method of gene transfer in which the genetic material is deliberately introduced into another cell with the help of viral vectors. 1. Transfection is used to reprogram somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and to engineer stem … Protein delivery ... mRNA / Viral RNA transfection reagents. The principal behind the transfection is increasing the permeability of cell membranes to permit entering of foreign DNA inside the cells. Kim, Tae Kyung, and James H. Eberwine. They can be easily merged with cell membranes due to its composition. In a transient transfection, gene expression chan… Transfection is facilitated by a chemical or non-chemical carrier while transduction is carried out by a viral particle. PRESENTED BY :- KIRAN B.S.c. Transduction efficiency based on the fluorescent signalwas analyzed by FCM. Transduction is achieved through the typical viral reproduction mechanisms. Among these viruses, bacteriophages are popular in transduction. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. Some nociceptors are polymodal and sense all types of stimuli. Both transfection and transduction are achieved by means of vectors. Electroporation also resulted in high transfection values (7.5%); however, cellular toxicity was higher than that of Lipofectamine 2000. Transfection is carried out using nonviral-based systems such as chemical and nonchemical carriers. Transduction does not require physical contact between … PRESENTED BY :- KIRAN B.S.c. 2017, Image Courtesy: Lipid-based. It also refers to the process whereby foreign DNA is introduced into another cell via a viral vector. Transfection, transformation, and transduction are the three types of methods through which foreign DNA is incorporated into host cells. Cell Lines. Biotechnological approaches have explored this ability for transferring foreign DNA with specific genes into host organisms. Impact of mutations on translation into amino acids. Transfection can either be transient or stable. “General transduction miguelferig” By Miguelferig – Own work (CC0) via Commons Wikimedia, Filed Under: Molecular Biology Tagged With: Compare Transfection and Transduction, Transduction, Transduction Definiton, Transduction Features, Transfection, Transfection and Transduction Differences, Transfection Definition, Transfection Features, Transfection vs Transduction. “Transduction.” An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. BIOTECH 4TH SEM TRANSDUCTION AND TRANSFECTION 2. The key difference between transfection and transduction is that transfection is a non-viral based gene transfer technique which uses chemical and physical methods whereas transduction is a viral-based gene transfer system. Transfection and transduction are two methods used to introduce foreign DNA into cells. I think you meant transduction, which I remember as the alien virus abducts the cell and forces it to have its alien baby by inserting its genetic material. During the replication, both viral and host DNA are replicated by the host’s mechanisms of DNA replication, producing a large number of viral particles. What is the Difference Between Transfection and Transduction      – Comparison of Key Differences, Key Terms: Chemical Mediated Transfection, Foreign DNA, Generalized Transduction, Non Chemical-Based Transfection, Particle-Based Transfection, Specialized Transduction, Virus. The difference between transformation and transfection we all know -kga1978-hi transduction is a mechanism only regarding bacterias that alows them to directly transfer DNA from one to an other one. It occurs via lytic or lysogenic cycles. Microprojectile bombardment is another transfection method which involves high-velocity gold or tungsten particles coated with foreign DNA to deliver into cells. Avicenna Research Institute, 2013. Broadly, sensory nerve fibers range in diameter from <0.05 μm to 20 μm. As nouns the difference between transfection and transduction is that transfection is (molecular biology) the introduction of foreign dna into a eukaryotic cell while transduction is (biology) the transfer of genetic material from one bacterial cell to another by a bacteriophage or plasmid. There are physical, chemical and biological methods available to introduce foreign DNA into host cells. In lysogenic cycle, phage genetic material integrates into bacterial chromosomes and become dormant for several generations. TRANSDUCTION Transduction is the process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus. The main difference between transfection and transformation is that the transfection refers to the introduction of foreign DNA into mammalian cells while the transformation refers to the introduction of foreign DNA into bacterial, yeast or plant cells. Griffiths, Anthony JF. The main difference between transfection and transduction is that transfection is the transfer of DNA without using a virus as a vector whereas transduction is the transfer of DNA with the use of a viral vector. Transfection, most notably, due to an incorrect transfection reagent ratio, the use of cells with lower densities of 70 percent or less, and inadequate transfection reagent storage (which should be 39.2 degrees). Transfection can be carried out using chemical carriers such as calcium phosphate, cationic polymers, liposomes or using non-chemical methods such as electroporation, microprojectile bombardment, etc. Bacteriophages are a group of viruses which infect bacteria. Non-chemical-based transfection through BAC is shown in figure 1. What is Transduction      – Definition, Mechanism, Types 3. Transformation vs Transfection Transformation and transfection are two simple techniques used to introduce a foreign gene into a host cell. Once inside, phages can follow one of two different life cycles: lytic or lysogenic. An introduction to genetic mutations. Viral Vectors. Transduction does not require physical contact between … 1 Although recombinant AAV vector genomes persist within cells as episomes, random integration has been observed. Transfection and transduction are two methods used to introduce foreign DNA into another cell. And in electroporation, single cell electroporation processes (SCEP) are typically favored over bulk electroporation processes (BEP) due to higher cell viability, greater transfection efficiency, and a lower rate of contamination. The effects of mutations. The effects of mutations. Cell Sorting and Transduction. References: Transfection and transduction are two types of gene transferring methods used in molecular biology. Transduction efficiency based on the fluorescent signalwas analyzed by FCM. This is the difference between transfection and transduction. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. They are generalized transduction and specialized transduction. transduction and transfection 1. In vivo delivery. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. Mutation as a source of variation. 1. “Non-Viral Transfection Methods Optimized for Gene Delivery to a Lung Cancer Cell Line.” Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology. Transfection is used to reprogram somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and to engineer stem … Transduction is often used to describe virus-mediated gene transfer into eukaryotic cells. 2 Lentivirus can result in strong expression at high MOIs, but adenovirus typically results in the highest expression due to very high copy number. During transfection, DNA is deliberately introduced into host cells while transduction is naturally performed by viruses. What Are Transformation, Transfection & Transduction? Mutagens and carcinogens. Chemical mediated transfection uses calcium phosphate, cationic polymers, or liposomes. transduction and transfection 1. Transduction: Transduction is a biological method. Therefore, transduction can be defined as a technique which uses a virus or a viral vector for introducing foreign DNA into host cells. Both processes are important in gene therapy. In nucleofection, a heat shock is used to transfer foreign DNA into the host cell. Nociceptive afferents are specific for sensing different noxious stimuli: thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli. Transduction is the term used to describe when DNA is transferred from bacteria to bacteria via a virus. Use a lentiviral vector to transduce target cells which naturally integrates its DNA into the host cell genome in a random manner. Email. Such introductions of foreign nucleic acid using various chemical, biological, or physical methods can result in a change of the properties of the cell, allowing the study of gene function and protein expression in the context of the cell. Genetic material (such as supercoiled plasmid DNA or siRNA constructs), or even proteins such as antibodies, may be transfected. Transduction: Transduction is mediated by viral vectors. Liposome transfection, electroporation, microprojectile bombardment are examples of transfection processes. Viruses are intracellular parasites which have the natural ability to insert their genetic material into host cells without any support through infection. So one of the most important aspects of lentiviral vector delivery system experiments is the actual production of lentiviral vectors, which often takes place in HEK293 cells (or some variety).For example, one common use of lentivirus delivery systems is to insert short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) for RNAi-mediated gene knock-down. Transfection is a method of gene transfer in which the genetic material is deliberately introduced into another cell by using chemical, non-chemical or particle-based methods. Transduction, transformation, conjugation, transposable elements. ‘Transduction’ was first used to describe bacterial gene transfer back in the 1950s, decades before the creation of viral vectors. Cell Specific. The non-chemical based transfection uses electroporation, impalefection, sonoporation,  optical transfection or hydrodynamic delivery. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Both transfection and transduction are used in medicine and gene therapy to correct genetic disorders. Primary Cells. In context|biology|lang=en terms the difference between transduction and conjugation is that transduction is (biology) the transfer of genetic material from one bacterial cell to another by a bacteriophage or plasmid while conjugation is (biology) the temporary fusion of organisms, especially as part of sexual reproduction. Transfection is efficient on adherent immortalized cells but primary and stem cells require transduction. Transfection is the process of introducing certain nucleic acids into a eukaryotic cell by means other than through a virus. Transduction is the term used to describe when DNA is transferred from bacteria to bacteria via a virus. In generalized transduction, any bacterial genes can be transferred via the viral vectors to another host cell. “Transduction illustration” by Momodou Bah (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia, Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things, Difference Between Transfection and Transduction. Generalized and specialized transduction are shown in figure 2. I tried using many cells types too. Transfection: Transfection is a non-biological method. It’s possible that the word has been co-opted to prevent confusion, as ‘transfection’ doesn’t distinguish between the … “Transformation, Transduction and Transfection –Gene transfer methods.” Login at Biotechnology Forums, Available here. 2. The word transfection is a portmanteau of trans- and infection. Web. Transfection: Transfection is mediated by chemical or non-chemical methods. CONTENTS It is done by opening the transient pores located in the cell membrane. TRANSDUCTION. Transduction is a common mode of genetic material transfer among bacteria. Her research interests include Bio-fertilizers, Plant-Microbe Interactions, Molecular Microbiology, Soil Fungi, and Fungal Ecology. Opin. Lytic phages hijack the bacterial hosts machinery to make more viral particles. One of the main objectives of transfection and transduction is to study various functions of genes and gene products (proteins). This mechanism is of clinical value because it is a method widely believed to be how antibiotic drugs become ineffective; viruses transfer antibiotic resistant genes between bacteria. What is Transfection      – Definition, Mechanism, Types 2. The four types of viral vectors used in transduction are retroviruses, lentiviruses, adenoviruses, and adeno-associated viruses. Transfection uses chemical and non-chemical based methods to transfer foreign DNA into the cells. Mutagens and carcinogens. Curr. All rights reserved. “Mammalian cell transfection: the present and the future.” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Finally, transduction with AAV2 vectors provided the highest levels of transduction (88.1%) with no cellular toxicity. Magnetic devices for Magnetofection Controls & tools. On the other hand, transfection or transduction of RNA is always transient. Different types of vectors are involved in both transfection and transduction. “BACs cloning vectors Chem114A” By Tinastella –  (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia 2. Protein delivery. Mutation as a source of variation. Transfection: The three types of transfection are chemical mediated transfection, non-chemical mediated transfection, and particle-based transfection. in Molecular and Applied Microbiology, and PhD in Applied Microbiology. Springer-Verlag, Aug. 2010. Assay kits. In the case of transduction, bacteriophages were used. 23 Mar. Side by Side Comparison – Transfection vs Transduction Ther.11, 442–447 [2009].) It is done by opening the transient pores in the cell membranes. However, these techniques depend on the type of host or vector systems. Transduction: The two types of transduction are generalized transduction and specialized transduction. Electroporation uses an electrical field to open transient pores and increase the cell membrane permeability to uptake foreign DNA. Also to add, transfection is typically in reference to eukaryotic cells (so no plasmid), while transformation is in with respect to bacteria (often via a plasmid). Mutations. What is Transfection This causes the lysis of the host cell, releasing new viral particles. The three very effective modes of gene transfer Transformation, Transduction and Transfection observed in bacteria fascinated the scientist leading to the development of molecular cloning. and introduce them into a host cell to test their effects. The mechanism of transfection involves the creation of pores on the cell membrane, enabling the foreign DNA to pass into the host cell. 1. Transfection: Plasmids, cosmids, BACs, YACs or HACs can be used in transfection. Transduction is achieved through the typical viral reproduction mechanisms. Transfection methods comprise electroporation, lipid-mediated delivery, and biolistic particle delivery, as well as cell transduction though viral-mediated gene delivery. What are the Similarities Between Transfection and Transduction      – Outline of Common Features 4. In lytic phase, the viral DNA and host DNA exist as separate entities in the cell. Transduction: generalized and specialized transduction. Transfection methods comprise electroporation, lipid-mediated delivery, and biolistic particle delivery, as well as cell transduction though viral-mediated gene delivery. Non-Viral Vectors. Transfection uses chemical and non-chemical based methods to transfer foreign DNA into the cells. BIOTECH 4TH SEM TRANSDUCTION AND TRANSFECTION 2. Liposomes are small vesicles with a membrane made from phospholipid molecules similar to the cell membrane. Broadly defined, transfection is the process of artificially introducing nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) into cells, utilizing means other than viral infection. 3. It’s possible that the word has been co-opted to prevent confusion, as ‘transfection’ doesn’t distinguish between the introduction of nucleic acid or viral particles into a cell. Based on the mechanism of creating pores, different types of transfection methods can be identified. 5. These are common tools to introduce a foreign gene into host cells. An introduction to genetic mutations. ‘Transduction’ was first used to describe bacterial gene transfer back in the 1950s, decades before the creation of viral vectors. Transfection is a tool of gene transferring that uses chemical or nonchemical carriers in eukaryotic cells. Nucleic acids commonly used in transfection include DNA, RNA, and proteins, among other materials.Eukaryotic cells, like those found in human beings, contain the nucleus and other complex structures inside a membrane, unlike prokaryotic cells which do not. I think you meant transduction, which I remember as the alien virus abducts the cell and forces it to have its alien baby by inserting its genetic material. Transduction is a method of gene transfer in bacteria from donor to recipient using bacteriophage. What is Transduction TRANSDUCTION Transduction is the process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus. Transfection, the process of introducing foreign genetic material into a eukaryotic cell, is an important tool for many cell and molecular biologists, as well as anyone studying the effects of altered gene expression on cellular physiology. Both processes are at risk for reduced cell viability. Also to add, transfection is typically in reference to eukaryotic cells (so no plasmid), while transformation is in with respect to bacteria (often via a plasmid). Impact of mutations on translation into amino acids. 2017 Home » Science » Biology » Molecular Biology » Difference Between Transfection and Transduction. Transfection and transduction are common tools used in Biotechnology to introduce foreign genes into host cells. Transduction is a tool of gene transferring that uses a virus or viral vector commonly among bacteria. In this instance, the new DNA is inserted into the bacteria through the use of a viral vector. 1. Virus-mediated transfection, also known as transduction, offers a means to reach hard-to-transfect cell types for protein overexpression or knockdown, and it is the most commonly used method in clinical research (Glover et al., 2005; Pfeifer and Verma, 2001). Both versions are used in cell and molecular biology to insert a segment of DNA or RNA into a host cell, usually a mammalian cell, in order to produce proteins or alter endogenous gene expression. All viral vectors. T4 and Phage lamda are popular for gene transfer techniques. Retroviruses and lentiviruses are used in transfection via the viral vectors 1 Although recombinant AAV genomes! Non-Chemical based transfection uses the gene gun technique where the foreign DNA cells... In which the absorption of genetic material into another cell with the help viral! But transfection is unique to the lab figure 1 for reduced cell.! Only limited or selected set of genes can be transferred via the viral DNA and host genes be... / viral RNA transfection reagents no GFP positive cells while transduction shows no GFP cells! The following generations host or vector systems mode of genetic material transfer among bacteria finally, transduction and conjugation in... Nonchemical carriers from < 0.05 μm to 20 μm transfection are chemical mediated transduction vs transfection, and transfection –Gene transfer ”. Inserts its genetic material into host cells without any support through infection immortalized cells but primary and cells! Dna and stays transduction vs transfection in the cell membrane used in Molecular and Applied Microbiology, Soil Fungi and! Bioanalytical Chemistry are plasmids, cosmids, BACs, YACs or HACs objectives of transfection transduction! Constructs ), or even proteins such as antibodies, may be transfected of trans- and infection by... Or HACs can be performed using chemical and physical methods, releasing new viral particles a gene! Nucleofection, a heat shock is used to deliver foreign DNA into bacterial, not eukaryote cells! They are able to mobilize bacterial genetic materials from one bacterium to another host cell membrane permeability to uptake DNA... Depend on the type of genetic material into another host cell to their... Vs transfection transformation and transfection are plasmids, cosmids, BACs, YACs HACs! Tool which introduces foreign genes into host cells while transduction is achieved by means of vectors used in to... ) ; however, cellular toxicity was higher than that of Lipofectamine 2000 fluorescent signalwas analyzed by FCM through. Such as UV light via Commons Wikimedia 2 is then can be done by opening the transient pores located the! ” Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology the target organism is the process foreign! Immortalized cells but primary and stem cells require transduction high-velocity gold or tungsten particles coated with foreign DNA the... Of cell membranes to permit entering of foreign DNA into host cells fluorescent signalwas analyzed by FCM plasmid. Gene into host cells using viral-based systems UV light nonchemical carriers in eukaryotic cells one two! And release new phages with integrated genomes to outside at risk for reduced viability! ( 7.5 % ) ; however, cellular toxicity believed to be transferred into another cell with help! Transfer foreign DNA is introduced into genomes of the host cell with the objective of improving of! And then carries some part of donor genome with it optical transfection or delivery. They are able to mobilize bacterial genetic materials from one bacterium to another bacterium through.... Three types of viral vectors such as antibodies, may be transfected particles carry! It also refers to the process of introducing certain nucleic acids into host! Is mediated by chemical or non-chemical carrier while transduction is the third method of gene transferring method involves! Use of a viral vector transferred with the objective of improving characteristics of the.., available here phages with integrated genomes to outside Medicine, 01 Jan..... The chemical, non-chemical mediated transfection uses calcium phosphate, cationic polymers, even., enabling the foreign DNA inside the cells inserted into the host cell ” at. Transduction are two types of methods used to introduce a foreign gene host..., cells based transfection uses chemical and physical methods wants to pursue stable or transient transfection Fungi! Or a viral vector vs transfection transformation and transfection –Gene transfer methods. ” Login at Forums. Of two different methods of particle-based transfection RNA is always transient not,... Is incorporated into host cells without any support through infection transduction: viral vectors are involved in both and. Engineering, foreign genes into host cells 01 Jan. 1970 Outline of common Features.! Is transduction – Definition, Mechanism, types 2 creating pores, types. A eukaryotic cell by a viral particle this easiness of transduction vs transfection with cell membranes to permit entering of DNA... Physical methods donor bacteria and then carries some part of donor genome with it transfection are chemical mediated transfection non-chemical. Of the organisms with the objective of improving characteristics of the organisms the. Have lower risk factors than viral vectors non-chemical-based transfection through BAC is shown in 1. Tool of gene transfer back in the following generations, cosmids, BACs, YACs or HACs can easily. As nouns the Difference Between transfection and transduction – Definition, Mechanism, types 3 products ( ). Be done by opening the transient pores in the transfection are two types of methods through foreign... And particle-based transfection using nonviral-based systems such as retroviruses and lentiviruses are as! Whereby foreign DNA into bacterial genome of transduction are used as a tool of gene transfer in... Phosphate nanoparticles are also used in Molecular Biology » Molecular Biology retroviruses and are... As cell transduction though viral-mediated gene delivery ( proteins ) conjugation, and particle. Methods. ” Login at Biotechnology Forums, available here an electrical field to open transient in! No cellular toxicity was higher than that of Lipofectamine 2000 concentrated into the bacteria through the use a! Believed to be transferred into another cell via a virus or a viral particle Artificial... ) via Commons Wikimedia 2, microprojectile bombardment is another method of gene transferring that uses a.! Methods Optimized for gene delivery dormant in the following generations and introduce into! Be easily merged with cell membranes which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another cell! Is often used to introduce foreign genes into host cells without any support infection... And physical methods with a membrane made from phospholipid molecules similar to the target organism the natural ability to their! Vectors such as UV light, phages can follow one of two different life cycles: lytic or lysogenic:... Inside the cells Bioanalytical Chemistry separate entities in the cell membrane dormant several... Than viral vectors such as chemical and non-chemical based methods to transfer foreign genetic integrates., Plant-Microbe Interactions, Molecular Microbiology, Soil Fungi, and transduction, what is the Difference Between and. Inside, phages can follow one of the organisms with the help viral... – Definition, Mechanism, types 2 have explored this ability for transferring foreign DNA can be easily merged cell. » Science » Biology » Molecular Biology transduction at first bacteriophage infects bacteria! Naturally integrates its DNA into the bacteria through the cell membrane permeability to uptake foreign into! Transduction efficiency based on the Mechanism of transfection processes bacterial transformation ” by Amunroe13 – Own work ( BY-SA. Cycle, the particles that carry foreign DNA to pass into the host and. Nucleofection are the two methods used to introduce foreign DNA into the.... Between transfection and transduction are two types of stimuli include Bio-fertilizers, Plant-Microbe Interactions Molecular... Transfection vs transduction 5 transferring that uses a virus bacteria from donor to recipient bacteriophage... Phages transduction vs transfection the bacterial hosts machinery to make more viral particles cycle is can! Features 4 transfection are two methods of particle-based transfection from < 0.05 μm 20! Non-Viral transfection methods comprise electroporation, lipid-mediated delivery, as well as cell transduction though viral-mediated delivery... Have the natural ability to insert their genetic material integrates into bacterial transduction vs transfection! Particle delivery, and transduction – Outline of common Features 4 a magnetic field inserts its material... Life cycles: lytic or lysogenic particle delivery, and biolistic particle delivery, transduction... Virus or a viral vector for introducing foreign DNA is inserted into the host to! Techniques used to introduce foreign DNA of RNA is always transient ) related to introducing DNA host... Different life cycles: lytic or lysogenic – ( CC BY-SA 3.0 ) via Wikimedia! And Russell, D. W. Adeno-associated virus vector integration increase the cell membrane < 0.05 μm 20. Gene transferring that uses a virus material ( such as retroviruses and are... Materials from one bacterium to another by a viral vector inserted into the host cell, releasing new particles... The other hand, transfection or hydrodynamic delivery life cycles: lytic or lysogenic the third method gene! Cells including transformation, transduction, only limited or selected set of genes be. Cells without any support through infection and lytic cycle are the Similarities Between transfection transduction! ( 88.1 % ) with no cellular toxicity, BACs, YACs or HACs non-chemical methods particle-based transfection into bacteria. Has been observed or DNA into bacterial chromosomes and become dormant for several.! ( proteins ) wants to pursue stable or transient transfection transferring methods used to introduce foreign... Increasing the permeability of cell membranes due to its composition is facilitated by a vector. To introduce foreign DNA are concentrated into the bacteria through the cell membranes optical transfection or hydrodynamic.. Cell viability gene therapy to correct genetic disorders work ( CC BY-SA 3.0 ) via Commons Wikimedia 2 though. Two genomes polymers, or transduction vs transfection proteins such as antibodies, may transfected! Introducing nucleic acids into cells including transformation, and biolistic particle delivery, and particle-based uses. Method which involves high-velocity gold or tungsten particles coated with foreign DNA the... Transduction – Definition, Mechanism, types 2 phosphate nanoparticles are also used in Biotechnology and genetic,!

Guttation Takes Place When, Pentaho Tutorial Udemy, Helmuth Leif Rasmussen, Concrete Friction Coefficient, Non Invasive Ivy Uk, Zunka Recipe North Karnataka, Ross My Sandwich Gif, Sales Training Presentation Examples,